Learning to Labor While Learning to be a Man: An Ethnographic Study of the Intersectionality of Class and Gender in the Counter-School Culture
P. Willis的Learning to Labour: How Working Class Kids Get Working Class Jobs出版至今已40年，促使後來的研究者視學校為一政治、社會、文化鬥爭的場域，並能了解青少年的身分認同如何在學校中形構而成，影響深遠，經典地位無庸置疑。本文著眼於其主要發現與論證，即反學校文化中階級與性別如何交織共構而成勞工子弟的身分認同，首先從四位一體的角度，分別針對其基本議題、技法、認識論、存在論進行評析，以期形成較為全面的理解；其次將焦點置於教育的範疇，探討這樣的經典著作對教育研究以及實務有何啟示，前者包括基本議題的深化與開創、民族誌研究法的貢獻與侷限，後者包括教育政策與學校改革、教師角色與師資培育；最後提出二點反思：教育研究應多著眼於教育政策的可能弔詭、教育機會均等既是基本議題也是終極關懷。
It has been forty years since P. Willis published his seminal work, Learning to Labour: How Working Class Kids Get Working Class Jobs. Two contributions stand out. One is to convincingly make it explicit that schooling serves as a site for political, social and cultural struggle. The other is to vividly analyze how youth identity is constituting and constructed in schools. This paper focuses on its major finding and argument, which is that class and gender intersect in a complicated way to form the identity of white working-class boys via the counter-school culture. To establish a more comprehensive understanding, this paper considers this influential study first in terms of four interrelated aspects, the basic issue, the technique, epistemology and ontology, and then its implications for educational research and practice. For educational research, two points are addressed: deepening and creating basic issues and the contribution and limitation of ethnographic studies; for educational practice, educational policy and school reform are discussed as well as teachers’ role and teacher education. This paper concludes with two reflections: educational research should inquire more into potential paradoxes in educational policy; equality of educational opportunity should be fundamental issues and ultimate concern.
|關鍵詞||反學校文化、交織性、批判民族誌、性別、階級、counter-school culture、intersectionality、critical ethnography、gender、class|