Study of Ecological Changes in Children’s Hakka Language Performance and Intergenerational Family Language Contexts
This study focused on issues of Hakka revitalization in Minong, Kaohsiung, and explored the interdependency between Hakka language performance and language use among families. In total, 149 third grade students from four elementary schools participated in this study. In the initial stage, data was collected from a self-compiled Hakka language proficiency test designed for students of beginner and lower intermediate levels to determine the students’ Hakka proficiency in listening, speaking, and reading. Subsequently, questionnaires were issued to examine the students’ language choices when interacting with family members. Data analysis was divided into the following three stages: (1) classification of linguistic data derived from the students’ Hakka language performance in pronunciation, lexicon, and syntax; (2) categorization of family language use phenomena; and (3) synthesis of the interdependent features of individual proficiency and family language use. The results showed that most students who achieved high scores lived with at least one grandparent, with whom they communicated using Hakka. More than 50% of students with low scores spoke Mandarin with their grandparents, parents, and siblings and 78.67% of these students spoke only Mandarin with their siblings. Mandarin only, Hakka and Mandarin, and Hakka only are the three language varieties used by children from Hakka families to communicate with their family members. However, these varieties are not performed linearly. Children from Hakka families may progress directly to Mandarin only without experiencing the Hakka and Mandarin and Hakka only stages. Therefore, we concluded that Hakka revitalization is not the result of a specific process. A practical approach to revitalization is initialization from the Hakka and Mandarin bilingual stage, thereby embracing the bilingual perspective. The findings of this study can transform the Hakka monolingual ideology to enhance the ecology of bilingual acquisition.
|關鍵詞||客語復振、相互依賴性、家庭語言、華語、雙語、Hakka revitalization、interdependency、family language、Mandarin、bilingual|