Zong-San Mou on Political and Moral Freedom
Following its founding during the pre-Qin dynasty and its development into Neo-Confucianism over the course of the Song and Ming Dynasties, Confucianism has entered its third stage with the chief mission being, as Zong-San Mou asserts, to draw on the traditional Confucian framework of “inner sage”(內聖) and “outer king”(外王) in order to assimilate Western democratic and scientifi c principles. This article aims to discuss why Mou conceives that traditional Confucianism is not only compatible with Western democracy, but also capable of remedying deficiencies caused by the individualism of Western political freedom. We focus on the following main questions: Why does Mou believe that political freedom is predicated upon moral freedom? Is there any point at which the Confucian freedom proposed by Mou could intersect with western political thought? What unique characteristics distinguish the two? How does Mou view the relationship between negative freedom and positive freedom? At the end of this paper, we will also attempt to offer a preliminary evaluation as to whether the Confucian freedom proposed by Mou can be understood from a new perspective, thus exploring its potential for reinterpretation.
|關鍵詞||牟宗三、政治自由、道德自由、儒家式自由、Zong-San Mou、political freedom、moral freedom、Confucian freedom|