Facilitating Science Teachers’ Professional Development in Inquiry-Based Teaching using the MAIT Website
世界近年科學教育改革的趨勢是要學生探究科學，教師需具備科學探究與探究教學的知識與信念，才能進行這種以開放式為主的教學方式。本研究的目的利用網路，引用概念改變與促進教師自我效能的策略來建立MAIT 網站學習情境，期望有效促進教師探究教學概念。研究中探討教師探究教學概念在網站學習的發展，並討論教師的探究教學概念與在課室的教學實務之間的相關。本研究分二階段進行，第一階段有25 位在職中學教師參與，這些教師正在修「數理教學原理與策略」的課程，在課程融入MAIT協助教師學習。第二階段則運用MAIT 網站，邀請17 位中學教師上網學習。研究者利用質、量合併與影像分析的方法分析收集的資料。結果顯示：在第一階段科學與數學教師探究教學概念上均有顯著的進步，認為MAIT 能夠提供「替代性經驗」、「口語勸說」、「成功的經驗」、「創造學習情境」及「陪伴學習」。在第二階段則發現具備不同自我效能的教師有不同的學習模式，高自我效能教師著重「引導探究教學」、「探究教學考量」、「探究教學觀點」並展現較多開放性活動。低自我效能教師重視「探究教學設計」、「本身教學」、「探究觀點」，出現較多結構性探究活動。
The modern trends in science education involve an open-ended approach that requires students to learn science by investigating concepts themselves. This open-ended approach means that teachers need to believe in it, and are enabled to conduct inquiry-based teaching. This study aimed to establish a website (MAIT) to facilitate teachers’ inquiry-based teaching competency by adopting strategies associated with conceptual change and the development of teacher self-efficacy. We investigated teachers’ conceptual development with regard to inquiry-based teaching in the learning environment provided by MAIT and discussed the relationship between teachers’ beliefs about inquiry-based teaching and their teaching practices. In the first stage of this research, twenty-five in-service teachers taking the “Instructional Principles and Strategies in Science and Mathematics” course participated in the research. MAIT was included in the course to assist in teachers’ learning. In the second stage, seventeen in-service teachers took the course online using MAIT. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to collect the data which were subsequently analyzed and the results combined. The method of video analysis was also used. The results indicated that participating teachers in the first stage showed significant improvement in their understanding of inquiry-based teaching. The results showed that MAIT could provide “vicarious experience”, “verbal persuasion”, “performance accomplishments”, “creating a learning environment” and “accompanying learning”. In the second stage, it was noted that teachers’ preference for a specific learning approach depended on their levels of self-efficacy. Teachers with high self-efficacy tended to focus on “guided-inquiry teaching”, “considerations on inquiry teaching” and “developing inquiry teaching perspectives”, and preferred more open-ended inquiry-based activities. In contrast, teachers with low self-efficacy focused on “designing inquiry teaching”, “considering their own teaching” and “developing inquiry perspectives”. They engaged in more structured inquiry-based activities.