Balancing En Pointe Between Dance And Death: The Pirouette Ballerina In The Film The Red Shoes
《紅菱豔》由麥可．鮑威爾（Michael Powell）與艾莫里．普瑞斯伯格（Emeric Pressburger）所執導製作，於1948年在英國首映，是近五十多年來少數以芭蕾為主題的暢銷電影，隨著全球化電影工業曾於臺灣播映。本文探討電影中所型塑的芭蕾伶娜角色與敘事，並分析幕後電影製作過程中電影劇組與舞者演員的合作關係與權力結構。除了分析劇本敘事中所預設的男性與女性的多重對立關係¬¬，本文亦以電影中的舞者與舞蹈身體為分析主體，同時援引近年舞蹈研究關於芭蕾女舞者形象、職涯與社會地位相關理論。本文認為這部電影可被視為芭蕾舞蹈史中的一個重要註腳，電影敘事中身為女性藝術工作者的芭蕾伶娜，被要求在舞與死之間不斷失衡與平衡，然而，這並非女性舞者天生的宿命，而是來自於父權社會結構與芭蕾歷史發展的脈絡，觀眾需考量女性舞者性別形象與社會權力架構中各種關係的位置與層次，以及舞蹈電影可能提供的多種觀看角度與詮釋。電影以「為舞蹈而死」的通俗愛情劇幻象，餵養出觀眾的情感投入與眼淚，而真實世界的女舞者則繼續努力建構舞蹈專業的主體性，在父權體制的權力架構中持續掙扎並協商抗衡。
The film The Red Shoes, directed by Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger, was released in 1948 in the United Kingdom and later in Taiwan. This paper investigates the images and the life of ballerina represented in this film and discusses the cooperation and power relationship between the dancers and the film directors in the filming process. This paper focuses on the dancers and the dancing body, explores how the narratives constructed the connection between arts and death, and analyzes the several sets of binaries between men and women in this film. This paper locates this film in the context of ballet history to investigate gender issues and employ dance literatures and theories about female ballet dancers. This paper argues that The Red Shoes should be considered as an important film in ballet history. In this film, the ballerina, as a professional artist, is forced to keep dancing and balancing between love and death. This is not the destiny of women. However, the intention to reverse the power relationship in those gender binaries is not acceptable from the viewpoints of patriarchy society. Therefore, its audiences have to understand the multiple-layered gender position and power relationships, and also explore the possibilities of different viewpoints in order to interpret The Red Shoes. While this film feed its audience with the belief and the relief of “die for dance,” the ballerina in the real world have to struggle in the patriarchy structure and negotiate with the power relationship in order to construct the subject position of dance profession and of female body.