An Analysis of the History of Taiwanese Character and Moral Education (1949-2014) and Its Implications for the 12-Year Basic Education
本文針對1949 至2014 年的臺灣品德教育歷史沿革加以探究，希藉此呈現品德教育發展歷程，另提出對十二年國民基本教育課程綱要擬定與推動的建議。本文依據歷年中小學的課程標準∕綱要∕促進方案發展脈絡與重點，將品德教育區分為戒嚴時期、解嚴轉型期、九年一貫期。品德教育在戒嚴時期，雖單獨設科有其周延性卻扮演傳遞政治意識型態的角色；解嚴後品德教育進入轉型微調，走向試驗以學生為中心的課程，卻因時期過短而成絕響；九年一貫課程中品德教育無預警地自課表消失，代之而起的〈教育部品德教育促進方案〉固有其成效，但品德教育在九年一貫課程中僅發揮消極融入作用。最後，面對十二年國民基本教育之嶄新時期開啟，本文提供學界與教育界對於品德教育發展與落實的啓示與建議，包括：在總綱層級宣示品德教育重要性，以回應大眾期望和世界各國趨勢；在各領域課程綱要納入品德教育具體內涵，以利課程有效融入與適切轉化；建議未來須推動兼顧社會正義與多元發展方式的品德教育課程，並促其在十二年國民基本教育中充分落實。
The purpose of this paper was to analyze the history of character and moral education (CME) during the past 65 years in Taiwan to form a complete image of CME and provide suggestions for the formulation and implementation of the 12-Year Basic Education Curriculum Guidelines. Concretely, the researchers reviewed the documents and literature of CME and divided the history from 1949 to 2014 into three phases - the Martial Law Phase, the Post-Martial Law Phase, and the 9-Year Curriculum Phase. During the Martial Law Phase, although CME was taught as a stand-alone subject, it played a role in transmitting political ideology. During the Post-Martial Law Phase, the goal was to implement a student-centered curriculum, but the period was too short to achieve total transformation. During the 9-Year Curriculum Phase, CME was omitted from the Curriculum Guidelines and replaced by the ‘Character and Moral Education Improving Project’ proclaimed by the Ministry of Education. As a result, CME was passively infused into the curriculum during this phase. Finally, the researchers proposed several suggestions as follows: The centrality of CME should be emphasized in the National Curriculum Guidelines to correspond to the public’s expectations and current international trends. Concrete contents of CME should be actively incorporated into the Curriculum Guidelines of each learning area in order to ensure effective integration and applicable transformation. Also, CME should be fully implemented in the 12-Year Basic Education Plan and include values of social justice and multiple developmental strategies.
|關鍵詞||十二年國民基本教育、品德教育、課程綱要、課程標準、character and moral education、curriculum guidelines、curriculum standard、the 12-year basic education|