A Study on “Xi Taishan Wen” from Hong Ming Ji
“Xi Taishan Wen” by Zhu Daoshuang is collected in the final volume of Hong Ming Ji, which was edited by Shi Sengyou in the Liang dynasty. Questions about the true identity of Zhu Daoshuang and whether Shi Sengyou or Shi Baolin is the true author of “Xi Taishan Wen” have elicited considerable debate. The structure of “Xi Taishan Wen” differs from the standard format of the “Xi” (denunciation) in later generations, which was announced for public condemnation and called for punitive expedition. In “Xi Taishan Wen”, the early style of “Xi” in the pre-Qin periodis adopted, and the God of Taishan and the Underworld messenger who record secular good and evil are directly condemned. The author of “Xi Taishan Wen” ordered the evil spirits who pretended to be real gods to leave the place, or else he would summon Vaishravana, Heavenly King of the North, and Heluozi to destroy them. The current study was conducted with the objective of determining whether this article was simply written for entertainment, or if it resulted from the competition between Taoism and Buddhism. Evidence of the author calling himself “Zhu Daoshuang” instead of “Shi Daoshuang” or“Prince Huan of Taiyuan” in the article indicates that the author of “Xi Taishan Wen” was from the Former Yan dynasty during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. During this era, the Former Yan dynasty ruled the Taishan area, and Murong Ke, a fierce warrior, possibly visited Taishan for worship because of illness. The era of Zhu Daoshuang is close to that of Zhu Senglang, who preached Buddhism in the Taishan area and was highly respected by the lords of several states. Therefore, the author of “Xi Taishan Wen” is possibly Zhu Daoshuang. “Xi Taishan Wen” must have been written between 367 A.D., soon after Murong Ke’s death because of illness, and 370 A.D., before the Former Yan was defeated by the Former Qin. In “Xi Taishan Wen”, the early and later periods of Taoism are clearly defined and the disorder of Taoismis criticized. Knowing that Taoism had been established in the Taishan area before Buddhism, Zhu Daoshuang still adopted the description from the Chinese translation of Buddhist scriptures, which reads “When one dies, one’s soul shall go to the Underworld at Taishan,” and believed that Taishan was actually ruled by Yamaraja, King of the Underworld, and that the God of Taishan was only a subordinate of Yamaraja. Hence, “Xi Taishan Wen” was not an article written for entertainment, but a serious work that adopted the traditional Chinese “Xi” style to reflect the competition between the orthodox and the dissident. This study obtianed a clearer understanding of the spread and influence of Buddhism in the Taishan area at that time.
|關鍵詞||《弘明集》、〈檄太山文〉、竺道爽、泰山神、竺僧朗、Hong Ming Ji、“Xi Taishan Wen”、Zhu Daoshuang、God of Taishan、Zhu Senglang|