從Iris Marion Young的差異政治反思教師的可能作為與教師圖像
在教育現場中，促進文化的理解與包容，並非易事。除了由上而下的政策及宣導之外，透過學校教育的實踐，教師必頇瞭解社會正義不單只是聚焦於社會財貨的適當分配上，以Young的觀點認為，社會的不公不義根源是在於「壓迫」與「宰制」。她在《正義與差異政治》，分析了五種面向的壓迫：剝削、邊緣化、無力感、文化的帝國主義和暴力，這五個面向的壓迫和宰制，如不從結構面與意識型態面解除，則不論再給予多大的額外補助，都無法導向實質的正義社會。正義觀頇深入探討社會制度和結構的問題，還應提及發展和行使個人能力和集體溝通與合作所需的體制條件。身為二十一世紀的教師，要注意在課堂上的分配權力，不是只有物質上的分配，還要考慮到班級內團體決策權力和過程、學生間的分工和不同族群間文化等因素。當然，班級內的結構是很難解構的，只有同時關注學生學習與發展的歷程，分析學生在班級內的關係、了解學生間互動的變化，觀察不同和多層次的結構，才能試著理解某種社會團體受到壓迫的具體面貌。教師也必頇透過不斷的啟發與建構學生多元的背景，才能揭開這分配典範的面紗。本文從Young所提出的差異政治探討教育現場面臨各種學生受壓迫的問題，並反思教師重視差異及溝通的可能作為，並試著建構教師圖像：即教師是面對學生差異的擴大思考者、教師是傾聽學生差異的對話溝通者、教師是鼓勵學生自我展現的啟蒙者。 In the educational circumstances, promoting cultural understanding and tolerance is not an easy task. In addition to top-down policies and promotion, through the practice of school education, teachers must be aware that social justice is not only focused on the proper distribution of social goods. According to Young, the main cause of social injustice lies in ''oppression'' and“domination.” In ''Justice and the Politics of Difference,'' she analyzes five aspects of oppression: exploitation , marginalization, powerlessness, cultural imperialism, and violence. These five aspects, if not lifted from the structure and conscious awareness, no matter how much extra subsidy is given, will not lead to a substantive justice society. The concept of justice requires an in-depth study of social institutions and structures, as well as the personal development and collective communication and cooperation. As teachers in the 21st century, it is necessary to pay attention to the distribution of power in the classroom, not only the material distribution, but also the factors and processes of group decision-making within the class, the division of labor between students and the culture between different ethnic groups. Of course, the structure within the class is difficult to deconstruct. Only by paying attention to students' learning process and development, analyzing the relationship among students in the class, understanding the changes of interaction between students, observing different and multi-level structures, can the oppression of a certain social group be understood. Teachers must also unveil the distributive paradigm by constantly inspiring and constructing a diverse background of students. This article discusses the different aspects of students' oppression from Young's politics of difference. It also reflects on the teachers' emphasis on differences and communication, and tries to construct the image of images: Teachers are thinkers who face the differences among students. Teachers are dialogue communicators who listen to students' diversity, and teachers are mentors who encourage students to achieve themselves.
|關鍵詞||差異政治、教師圖像、分配正義、壓迫、Iris Marion Young、 Politics of Difference、the Image of Teachers、Distributive Justice、Oppression、Iris Marion Young|