Teaching Effectiveness of SPOC Flipped Classroom in College： A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
In recent years， blended learning has become a hot topic in the higher education field. However，most teachers neither really understand the innate meaning of blended learning and nor master the method and skill of design and implementation of blended learning with different complexity. Therefore，the blended learning practice stays at an immature level. Based on the blended learning theory， this research systematically tidied up the connotation and complexity of blended learning. We propose four kinds of blended learning with different complexity ： simple mixture， component， integration，and hybrid. Adopting a design-based research paradigm， this research suggests design method of implementing blended learning with four complexities based on more than five years of teaching practice on four undergraduate courses. The results from our implementation include ； (1) With the increase of complexity， the online learning in blended learning increases and becomes the main way to carry out learning activity. Also， the design and implementation of blended learning become more difficult， (2 ) Only when teachers and students master the methods and skills to carry out blended learning， the high complexity of online and offline learning can he done effectively. (3 ) Implementation of blended learning with different complexity has various advantages and characteristics. Different disciplines and different types of courses can choose adaptive complexity blended learning. (4) Four kinds of different complexity blended learning are not the four blended learning models， and they are not the only design method and should be adjusted flexibly by combining various factors.
|關鍵詞||复杂度、线上线下、混合学习、实施设计、complexity、online learnings、offline learnings、blended learnings、design of implementation、CSSCI|