Effects of Argumentation Scaffolding on the Quality of Individual Knowledge Elaboration in the Flipped Classroom
Compared to the traditional classroom， the flipped classroom focuses more on application and transfer of knowledge， with intent to develop learner，s higher-order thinking rather than retention and understanding in direct instruction. In China， during the last five years，instructional initiatives have centered on the flipped classroom for deep learning. By reviewing the studies on the flipped classroom， we found that more attention has been paid to the development of micro-lesson videos. Most studies focused on the effects of flipped learning on academic achievement & motivation，and teachers’ or students’ perceptions of the flipped classroom. Few studies have involved effective strategies to develop students’ higher-order thinking and processes of students’ knowledge elaboration during the active learning activity in the flipped classroom. Argumentation is regarded as an important method to develop higher-order thinking. In order to achieve the goal of developing students’ higher-order thinking，this study provided argumentation scaffolds to activate students，argumentation in class. This study employed a true pretest-posttest control group experiment. 193 freshmen and sophomores were chosen to participate in the flipped learning about one chapter of the curriculum Modern Educational Technology， who were randomly assigned to the experimental group 1 with Toulmin，s TAP argumentation scaffolding， the experimental group 2 with Walton^ s AVD argumentation scaffolding and the control group with no scaffolding. Toulmin，s TAP argumentation is rhetorical， persuading the audience into the approval of the arguer’ s claim. Whereas， Walton’s AVD argumentation is dialectical，refuting other’s claim as important as persuading the audience into the agreement of the arguer，s own claim. Results were accessed by qualitative coding analysis and one-way ANCOVA. Findings indicated that in terms of the number of utterances facilitating effective knowledge elaboration， Walton’s AVD scaffolding other than Toulmin’s TAP scaffolding significantly foster effective knowledge elaboration; from the perspective of the validity of knowledge elaboration， Toulmin，s TAP scaffolding and Walton’s AVD scaffolding prominently enhanced the validity of knowledge elaboration than the control group did， which verified that in the flipped classroom argumentation scaffolding is favorable for boosting the quality of individual knowledge elaboration and in turn induces deep learning. In the future，this study will shed light on instructional strategies facilitating effective flipped classroom learning activities，and provide an avenue for studying on whether the goal of developing higher-order thinking is achieved through a flipped learning approach. Additionally， this study will provide the data-based evidence for evaluating the individual，s cognitive engagement when he or she participates in the active learning activity in the flipped class.
|關鍵詞||翻转课堂、争论式教学、图尔敏教学支架（TAP)、沃尔顿教学支架（AVD)、知识加工、flipped classroom、argumentation teaching、Toulmin's TAP Scaffold、Walton's AVD Scaffold、effective knowledge elaboration、CSSCI|