A Discussion on White Lotus Devotees Distortion of Buddhism and Taoism Doctrines in Yuan Dynasty - Citing the Viewpoints of the “Book on the Meanings of Lotus Sect”
南宋茅子元創建修持念佛法門之白蓮宗，廣為民間普羅大眾喜愛，然而民間 諸多白蓮道人缺乏對佛法教義的正知見，或是受到其他民間宗教思想影響與滲 透，使元代白蓮道人產生諸多不如法的邪說異行。元代廬山東林寺僧人優曇普度 見民間宗教亂象紛紜，遂編撰《廬山蓮宗寳鑑》，援引大乘經論與祖師教說，闡 發念佛三昧要義，欲摧破邪說，令朝野僧俗理解白蓮宗乃念佛之正宗而非事魔之 邪教。在〈念佛正論〉中，普度指出民間白蓮道人等末流之邪說異行，可歸納為 「曲解丹道要旨、假托鬼神信仰、附會佛法義理、背離清淨戒行」等四類。職是 之故，本文首先闡述《廬山蓮宗寳鑑》具有破邪顯正之性格，繼而針對〈念佛正 論〉所揭白蓮道人對於佛法教義、道教内丹理論以及假托民間鬼神信仰等言行予 以檢討。
In Southern Song Dynasty， Mao Tzu-yuan established Lotus Sect. With its devotion to Buddha-chanting Dharma (i. e. a practice of repeating the name “Amitabha Buddha” mindfully to pursue rebirth in the Pure Land)， Lotus Sect grew rapidly and gained popularity from the public. However， a number of White Lotus devotees in Yuan Dynasty either misunderstood Buddhism doctrines or adoped folk religions to result in all kinds of heretical beliefs and atypical conducts. Yutan Pudu， a Buddhist monk of Donglin Temple in Mount Lu， witnessed the turmoil in folk religions， so he decided to compile the “Book on the Meanings of Lotus Sect”，citing Mahayana sutras and Buddhism founders5 teachings to elucidate the meanings of “Three Samadhis (3 entrances to liberation) and to destroy all the wrong views held by the heretical groups， allowing all monks and commoners to understand that Louts Sect was an orthodox Buddha-chanting Dharma instead of a cult. In his book “Correct and Sensible View of Buddha-Chanting”，Pudu divided White Lotus devotees’ heretical beliefs into four categories， namely， distorting Taoism alchemy doctrines， using supernatural faith as pretext， drawing a forced analogy from Buddhism doctrines， and deviating from the precepts of purity and cleanness stated in Buddhism doctrines. Based on the aforementioned views， this study described that the “Book on the Meanings of Lotus Sect” was able to destroy the evils and to reveal the truths. Furthermore， this study cites the viewpoints stated in the “Correct and Sensible View of Buddha-Chanting” against White Lotus devotees’ distortion of Buddhism doctrines and Taoism internal alchemy doctrines as well as their deviated words and deeds using supernatural faith as pretext.
|關鍵詞||淨土法門、白蓮宗、優曇普度、廬山蓮宗寶鑑、Dharma of Pure Land、Lotus Sect、Yutan Pudu， Book on the Meanings of Lotus Sect|