Key Competencies in China: Tao' Three-competency Theory and Basic-skill Theory
Ever since OECD started in 1997 the project of Definition and Selection of Competences： Theoretical and Conceptual Foundations， the term “ key competences” has been highlighted in the educational documents in many countries and regions. Despite varied definitions of key competencies， there is a common understanding in those countries and regions. First， key competences should be understood from two aspects ： fostering the whole person and promoting social development; second， both citizenship and internationalization have been emphasized by each economy and international organizations; third， most economies put emphasis on such competences as information ， science and creativity in the new century* Meanwhile ， each economy pays more attention to their excellent traditional culture in building the system of their own key competences. In order to deepen the comprehensive educational reform ， it is imperative to explore and construct the system of key competences in China. Therefore ， it is necessary to review the Three-competence theory and Basic-skill theory developed by Tao Xingzhi ， a famous Chinese educator in the 20th century. In his career ， Tao first proposed three essential competencies ， including learning to live ， learning to be initiative and learning to be creative; later ， Tao developed the idea of 23 basic skills at Yu Cai Middle School ， which came to be known as Three-competence theory and Basic-skill theory. In Tao ’ s opinion ， learning to live ， learning to be initiative and learning to be creative are necessary for one to be a whole person and the 23 basic skills are the embodiment of these three competences. In a sense ， these two theories could be considered as Tao，s idea of key competencies. Based on Tao^ s Three-competence theory and Basic-skill theory ， as well as a comparative analysis of the related researches on key competences ， this paper attempts to develop a new system of key competencies in the new era. That is ， key competences involve field competencies and general competencies. General compe- tencies cover social development ( social responsibility ， national identity ， international understanding and cooperation) ，personal development ( self-understanding and self-management ， the competence to be happy) and advanced learning ability ( critical thinking ， creativity and lifelong learning) . Field competences put more emphasis on specific fields ， such as language literacy ， mathematical competences ， science skills ， art literacy and information skills.
|關鍵詞||核心素养、中国表述、三力论、常能论、key competences、Three-competence theory、Basic-skill theory、Tao Xingzhi|