Education and Human Nature i Perspective of Conservatism View of Humanity
From the perspective of conservative ideology of human， this paper aims to reveal the relationship between education and human. Although conservative ideology of human serves its political science， it is meaningful to examine education from the conservative angle， which contributes to refining the ideology of human and humanism position of education. Based on the review of related literatures about the proposition of conservative ideology of human， this paper argues that conservatism has abundant and unique propositions about human nature. In the view of conservatism， human nature is a potential ability. The moral issue of human nature is concrete， while goodness and evil is the concrete manifestation of the social realities. The relationship between human nature (as human potential) and the goodness and evil in human behavior is the same as a seed in different soil has different growth. Human being is a dignified existence， if a person lives without dignity， his or her life is not a real human life. Human nature is not only constant but also is the same everywhere. Human moral issue is no abstract， on the contrary it is concrete. As a concrete human morality， it is imperfect， and it is unlikely to be perfect. Human nature is the source of goodness and evil， the social system is not the source but is goodness or evil itself. Even if the social system is perfect， the tendency of evil in human nature also cannot be got rid of. Although human nature shows great uncertainty and difference， the possibility of human nature potential (goodness and evil) is constant， which makes human born imperfect， and is unlikely to achieve the highest goodness. Human nature is equal， and the actual performance of human nature is diverse. Immutable human nature is not only diverse but also natural. This natural diversity determines the social ability of different individuals and the difference between social roles. And the social ability of different individuals and the difference between social role leads to social inequality. Freedom is a part of human nature， but freedom is concrete and societalf it changes with the times and the environment. What' more， freedom is based on the premise of order， which is real and meaningful. Although freedom cannot be separated from order， the value of freedom takes precedence over the value of order and authority. Without freedom of human nature， there would be no true virtue! without moral， there would be no human nature freedom. The conservative ideology of human nature has important educational implications. Based on the above analysis， this paper concludes that educators should not take the moral character and behavior of human being as a substantive nature but show much respect for the dignity of the educated. Only when the dignity of the educated is well respected can education be improved. The effect of education is limited， as it cannot change human nature and it should respect the imperfectness of human being. Education result equality should not be taken as a direct and primary objective of education justice. The orderly and virtuous freedom of human nature which liberal education aims to achieve is based on educational freedom. Without it there would be no liberal education. Education should enable the free growth of human nature by maintaining and creating freedom.
|關鍵詞||保守主义、激进主义、人性、自由教育、教育平等、conservatism、human nature、liberal education、educational equality|