Research Design of EDUCATION FOR THE FUTURE： Global Experience of Developing 21 st Century Skills and Competencies
China Education Innovation Institute of Beijing Normal University (CEII， BNU) was entrusted by World Innovation Summit for Education (WISE) to summarize the global experience of developing 21st Century Skills and Competencies. It aims to help policy makers， education leaders and researchers to have a comprehensive understanding of the formulation， connotation and implementation of 21 st Century Competencies around the world. International organizations or economies use various terms to describe the educational goals. For the purpose of the current study we use the term “21st Century Skills and Competencies” or “21rst Century Competencies”. A competency is， therefore， a broader concept that may comprise skills， attitudes and knowledge. The study has four aims: (a) to identify the driving forces behind these competencies， (b) to analyze the elements and structures of the frameworks， (c) to investigate the implementation of the frameworks in education， and (d) to discuss necessary support from government and communities. Finally， suggestions are put forward based on the above analysis. Official publications on the frameworks of 21st Century Competencies by five international organizations and 24 countries or regions have been reviewed. The frameworks represent organizations or economies from six different continents. The inclusion of more economies from Asia， Africa and South America in this study presents more substantive research findings， compared with previous studies focusing on Europe or America. The economies are at different stages of their development. Besides， the inclusion of middle-income economies may be a meaningful expansion of previous studies. The research process includes defining the terms， identifying the research questions， selecting research subjects， reviewing literature and writing the report， suggesting strategies to promote， develop and apply these competencies， etc. As the outcome of this study， the report EDUCATION FOR THE FUTURE： Global Experience of Developing 21st Century Skills and Competencies was published in this journal， together with four research papers centered around the four aims. The papers are I (a) Driving Forces under the Construction of 21st Century Competencies， (b) Analysis of 21st Century Competencies and Frameworks， (c) Curriculum， Teaching and Learning， and Assessment for 21st Century Competencies， (d) Supporting 21st Century Competencies education. We conclude this study with some issues worthy of further study， e. g， what competencies are needed today and in the future and how they can be cultivated? The traditional Chinese philosophy (e. g. dealing with changes with changelessness) could offer alternative perspectives on these issues. On the one hand， it requires considering whether there are some core competencies based on children? s cognitive development. Moreover， the whole-person development is not simply a total of these competencies. Therefore it' essential to explore the connotation of a “whole person” and the way to cultivate such a person.
|關鍵詞||21世纪核心素养、研究设计、研究问题、研究对象、研究过程与方法、21st Century Competencies、research design、research questions、research subjects、research process and methods|