The Schooling Unfairness Perceived by Students in Junior High Schools and Elementary Schools
本研究旨在探討國中小學生對學校教育不公平的知覺。本研究以383位國中小學生為預試樣本，編製「學校教育不公平知覺量表」，共包含「不合理」、「不均等」、「不正義」三層面。再以3,097位國中小學生為對象進行調查。調查資料經以SPSS for Windows 20.0套裝軟體中次數分配、單因子多變項分析，以及Scheffé多重比較分析法進行資料處理與分析。研究結果發現：一、大部分國中小學生知覺到「不合理」、「不均等」、「不正義」是不公平的，尤其是「不合理」；二、女生、年齡較大、來自大型學校或班級之國中小學生，愈覺得學校教育不公平；三、「不合理」是台灣五到九年級學生（11～15歲）在判斷「不公平」與否時的主要因素，此發現與之前文獻發現幼稚園學生以「不均等」來判斷不公平，或歐洲13～15歲學生以「均等」來判斷公平，有所不同。
This study explores student perceptions of school unfairness in both junior high school (JHS) and elementary school (ES). The study used the “Inventory of the Perception on Schooling Unfairness” (IPSU), consisting of 20 unfair items categorized to three dimensions, unreasonable, unequal, and unjust according to the factor analysis on the 383 samples surveyed in a pretest. The 3,097 participants in the subsequent survey study were from both JHS and ES. The data obtained were statistically analyzed by frequencies and MANOVA. Most students perceived all three dimensions as unfair, especially the unreasonable dimension. Significantly higher perceptions on unfair were found in participants who were female, older, or from larger schools or classes. Unlike the literature reports in which unequal was the predominant unfair perception of preschoolers or equal was the predominant fair principle of most 13-14-year-old students in five European countries, in this study the unreasonable factor was found to play an important role for Taiwan students in the fifth to ninth grades (ages 11-15) in their judgment of unfairness.